Götungar (Foraminifera)

Lýsing

Götungar (Foraminifera) eru einfruma sjávardýr sem mynda smágerðar skeljar úr kalki eða samanlímdum sandkornum og öðrum aðskotahlutum. Skeljarnar eru fjölbreytilegar að gerð, allt allt frá einföldum sekklaga hjúp til þess að vera samsettar úr fjölda smáhólfa. Algeng stærð götunga er frá um 0,1 til 0,5 mm, en margar núlifandi tegundir verða nokkrir sentimetrar.

Lífveran sem myndar skelina er slímkennd fruma, sem heldur sig að mestu innan í skelinni og sendir frá sér langa þræði af frymistaumum, svonefnda skinfætur, sem mynda óreglulegt frymisnet (granuloreticulate pseudopods). Skinfæturna, eða frymisnetið, notar fruman til færa sig úr stað, veiða aðrar lífverur sér til viðurværis, eða taka til sín uppleyst næringarefni úr umhverfinu.

Götungar eru meðal algengustu lífvera sjávar; þeir eru í öllum heimshöfum, allt frá fjöru og niður í dýpstu afkima sjávar. Algengt er að millilítri af botnseti innihaldi nokkur hundruð eintök sem tilheyra tugum tegunda. Botn heimshafanna er víða þakinn misþykku lagi af tómum götungaskeljum. Setlög jarðar eru óhemju rík af steingerðum götungum, allt frá kambríum. Af þeim sökum hafa götungar verið rannsakaðir af kappi frá því fyrir upphaf 19. aldar. Þekktar eru um 40.000 steingerðar tegundir og þar af eru um 2.100 núlifandi. Langflestar tegundirnar eru botnlægar, sem ýmist sitja fastar á hörðu undirlagi, mjaka sér eftir sjávarbotninum eða grafa sig niður í laust botnset. Aðeins um 40 núlifandi tegundir ala allan sinn aldur sem svifdýr í efri lögum sjávar. Þótt sviflægu tegundirnar séu fáar, þá er sjávarbotninn víða þakinn allþykku lagi af skeljum þeirra (globigerina ooze).   

Á Íslandsmiðum eru þekktar götungategundir 241. Ein af stærstu tegundundunum á Íslandsmiðum (Cornuspiroides striolatus) myndar kalkskel, sem getur orðið allt að 4 cm í þvermál.

Þekktar götungategundir á Íslandsmiðum, hér skipað í þrjá hópa eftir byggingarefni skeljar samkvæmt viðtekinni venju.

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Sandgötungar (Agglutinating species)

Adercotryma glomerata (Brady, 1878)

Ammodiscus gullmarensis Höglund, 1948

Ammoglobigerina globigeriniformis (Parker & Jones, 1865)

Archimerismus subnodosus (Brady, 1884)

Armorella sphaerica Heron-Allen & Earland, 1932

Astrorhiza arenaria Carpenter in Norman, 1877

Astrorhiza granulosa (Brady, 1879)

     *Astrorhiza angulosa Brady, 1881

Astrorhiza limicola Sandahl, 1858

Astrorhiza sabulifera Shchedrina, 1946

Bathysiphon crassatina (Brady, 1884)

     *Astrorhiza crassatina Brady, 1884

Bathysiphon giganteum Cushman, 1917

     *Bathysiphon flavidum var. giganteum Cushman, 1917

Botellina labyrinthica Brady, 1881

Cribrostomoides jeffreysii (Williamson, 1858)

Cribrostomoides subglobosa (Cushman, 1910)

     *Cribrostomoides subglobosus (Cushman, 1910)

Crithionina granum Goës, 1894

Crithionina hispida Flint, 1899

Crithionina pisum Goës, 1896

Cuneata arctica (Brady, 1881)

     *Reophax arctica Brady, 1881

Cystammina pauciloculata (Brady, 1879)

Dendronina arborescens Heron-Allen & Earland, 1922

     *Hyperammina arborescens (Heron-Allen & Earland, 1922)

Eggerella bradyi (Cushman, 1911)

     *Verneulina bradyi Cushman, 1911

Haplophragmoides canariensis (d'Orbigny, 1839)

Haplophragmoides major Cushman, 1920

Hemisphaerammina bradyi Loeblich & Tappan, 1957

Hormosina pilulifera (Brady, 1884)

     *Reophax pilulifera Brady, 1884

Hormosinella distans (Brady, 1881)

     *Reophax distans Brady, 1881

Hormosinella guttifera (Brady, 1881)

     *Reophax guttifera Brady, 1881

Hyperammina cylindrica Parr, 1950

Hyperammina elongata Brady, 1878

Hyperammina friabilis Brady, 1884

Hyperammina laevigata Wright, 1891

Jaculella obtusa Brady, 1882

Komokia multiramosa Tendal & Hessler, 1977

Labrospira crassimargo (Norman, 1892)

     *Cribrostomoides crassimargo (Norman, 1892)

Lagenammina difflugiformis (Brady, 1879)

     *Saccammina difflugiformis (Brady, 1879)

Loeblichopsis sabulosa (Brady, 1881)

Pilulina jeffreysii Carpenter, 1875

Placopsilinella aurantiaca Earland, 1934

Psammatodendron arborescens Norman, 1881

Psammosphaera fusca Schulze, 1875

Recurvoidella bradyi (Robertson, 1891)

    *Haplophragmoides bradyi (Robertson, 1891)

Recurvoides turbinata (Brady, 1881)

     *Recurvoides turbinatus (Brady, 1881)

Reophax nodulosus Brady, 1879

Reophax rostrata Höglund, 1947

Reophax scorpiurus de Montfort, 1808

Reophax subfusiformis Earland, 1933

Rhabdammina abyssorum M. Sars, 1869

Rhabdammina linearis Brady, 1879

Rhabdammina neglecta Gooday, 1986

Rhizammina algaeformis Brady, 1879

Saccammina sphaerica Brady, 1871

     *Astrammina sphaerica (Brady, 1871)

Saccorhiza ramosa (Brady, 1879)

Septuma ocotillo Tendal & Hessler, 1977

Spiroplectammina biformis (Parker & Jones, 1865)

Technitella legumen Norman, 1878

Testulosiphon indivisus (Brady, 1884)

Textularia bocki Höglund, 1947

Textularia earlandi Parker, 1952

Textularia torquata Parker, 1952

Testulosiphon indivisus (Brady, 1884)

Tholosina bulla (Brady, 1881)

Thurammina albicans Brady, 1879

Thurammina compressa Brady, 1879

Thurammina papillata Brady, 1879

Tolypammina vagans (Brady, 1879)

Tritaxis fusca (Williamson, 1858)

Trochammina inflata (Montagu, 1808)

Trochammina nana (Brady, 1881)

Trochammina pseudoinflata Scott & Vilks, 1991

Trochammina pusilla Höglund, 1947

     *Trochammina quadriloba Höglund, 1948

Trochammina squamata Jones & Parker, 1860

Verneuilinulla advena (Cushman, 1922)

     *Eggerella advena (Cushman, 1922)

 

Postulínsgötungar (Calcareous species - porcellaneous)

Biloculinella inflata (Wright, 1902)

Cornuloculina inconstans (Brady, 1879)

     *Ophthalmidium inconstans Brady, 1884

Cornuspira antarctica Rhumbler, 1931

Cornuspira carinata (Costa, 1856)

Cornuspira foliacea (Philippi, 1844)

Cornuspira involvens (Reuss, 1850)

    Cyclogyra involvens (Reuss, 1850)

Cornuspirella diffusa (Heron-Allen & Earland, 1913)

Cornuspira profundum Stschedrina, 1946

Cornuspiroides striolata (Brady, 1882)

Cribromiliolinella ericsoni (Loeblich & Tappan, 1957)

     *Cruciloculina ericsoni Loeblich & Tappan, 1957

Cycloforina contorta (d'Orbigny, 1839)

     * Quinqueloculina contorta d'Orbigny, 1839

Discospirina tenuissima (Costa, 1856)

     (non Discospirinia ittalica (Costa, 1856))

Edentostomina cultrata (Brady, 1881)

     *Quinqueloculina cultrata (Brady, 1881)

Fischerina communis (Seguenza, 1880)

Glomospira gordialis (Jones & Parker, 1860)

Gordiospira arctica Cushman, 1933

Miliolinella circularis (Bornemann, 1855)

     *Triloculina circularis Bornemann, 1855

Miliolinella subrotunda (Montagu, 1803)

     *Quinqueloculina subrotunda Montagnu, 1803

     *Pateoris hauerinoides (Rhumbler, 1936)

Miliolinella valvularis (Reuss, 1851)

     * Triloculina valvularis Reuss, 1851

Spirophthalmidium acutimargo (Brady, 1884)

     *Ophthalmidium acutimargo (Brady, 1884)

Patellina corrugata Williamson, 1858

Planispirinoides bucculenta (Brady, 1884)

Pyrgo bulloides (d'Orbigny, 1826)

Pyrgo comata (Brady, 1881)

Pyrgo depressa (d'Orbigny, 1826)

Pyrgo elongata (d'Orbigny, 1826)

Pyrgo inornata (d'Orbigny, 1846)

     *Pyrgo anomala (Schlumberger, 1891)

Pyrgo labrum Gudmundsson, 1998

Pyrgo lucernula (Schwager, 1866)

Pyrgo murrhina (Schwager, 1866)

Pyrgo pyxis Gudmundsson, 1998

Pyrgo ringens (Lamarck, 1804)

Pyrgo sarsi (Schlumberger, 1891)

Pyrgo serrata (Bailey, 1861)

Pyrgo williamsoni (Silvestri, 1923)

Pyrgoella sphaera (d'Orbigny, 1839)

Quinqueloculina arctica Cushman, 1933

Quinqueloculina auberiana d'Orbigny, 1839

Quinqueloculina agglutinans d'Orbigny, 1839

Quinqueloculina nitida Nørvang, 1945

Quinqueloculina seminuda Reuss, 1866

Quinqueloculina seminula (Linnaeus, 1758)

     *Quinqueloculina seminulum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Quinqueloculina vulgaris d'Orbigny, 1826

Sigmopyrgo vespertilio (Schlumberger, 1891)

     *Pyrgo vespertilio (Schlumberger, 1891)

Silicosigmoilina groenlandica (Cushman) emend Loeblich & Tappan, 1953

     *Quinqueloculina groenlandica Cushman, 1933

Siphonaperta quadrata (Nørvang, 1945)

      *Quinqueloculina quadrata Nørvang, 1945

Spiroloculina limbata d'Orbigny, 1826

Spirophthalmidium acutimargo (Brady, 1884)

     *Ophthalmidium acutimargo (Brady, 1884)

Triloculina oblonga (Montagu, 1803)

Triloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny, 1826

Triloculina trigonula (Lamarck, 1804)

Triloculina trihedra Loeblich & Tappan, 1953

Triloculinoides magnusi Stschedrina, 1946

 

Glergötungar (Calcareous species - hyaline)

Alabaminella weddellensis (Earland, 1936)

     *Eponides weddellensis Earland, 1936

Astacolus de Montfort, 1808

Astrononion gallowayi Loeblich & Tappan, 1953

Astrononion stellatum Cushman & Edwards, 1937

Bolivinellina pseudopunctata (Höglund, 1947)

     *Bolivina pseudopunctata Höglund, 1947

Bolivinellina pseudopunctata (Höglund, 1947)

     *Brizalina pseudopunctata (Hoeglund, 1947)

Buccella frigida (Cushman, 1921)

Buccella frigida (Cushman, 1921)

     *Eponides frigida (Cushman, 1922)

Buccella tenerrima (Bandy, 1950)

Bulimina marginata d'Orbigny, 1826

Buliminella hensoni Lagoe, 1977

Cassidulina laevigata d'Orbigny, 1826

Cassidulina neoteretis Seidenkrantz, 1995

Cassidulina nitidula (Chaster), sensu Cushman 1922; in Nørvang, 1945

Cassidulina reniforme Nørvang, 1945

     *Cassidulina crassa var. reniforme Nørvangi, 1945

Cassidulina teretis Tappan, 1951

Cassidulina teretis Tappan, 1951

     *Islandiella teretis (Tappan, 1951)

Cassidulina translucens Cushman & Hughes, 1925

Chilostomella ovoidea Reuss, 1850

Cibicides refulgens de Montfort, 1808

Cibicides wuellerstorfi (Schwager, 1866)

     *Planulina wuellerstorfi (Schwager, 1866)

Cribroelphidium albiumbilicatum (Weiss, 1954)

     *Elphidium albiumbilicatum (Weiss, 1954)

Cribroelphidium excavatum (Terquem, 1875)

     *Elphidium excavatum (Terquem, 1875)

     *Elphidium excavatum subsp. clavatum Cushman, 1930

Cribroelphidium incertum Williamson, 1858

     *Elphidium incertum (Williamson, 1858)

Cribroelphidium magellanicum (Heron-Allen & Earland, 1932)

     *Elphidium magellanicum Heron-Allen & Earland, 1932

Cribroelphidium subarcticum (Cushman, 1944)

     *Elphidium subarcticum Cushman, 1944

Dentalina antennula d'Orbigny, 1846

Dentalina mutabilis (Costa, 1855)

     *Dentalina flintii (Cushman, 1923)

Dentalina pauperata (d'Orbigny, 1846)

     Laevidentalina pauperata (d'Orbigny, 1846)

Dentalina frobisherensis Loeblich & Tappan, 1953

     *Laevidentalina frobisherensis (Loeblich and Tappan, 1953)

Discanomalina coronata (Parker & Jones, 1865)

     *Anomalina coronata Parker & Jones, 1865

Discanomalina coronata (Parker & Jones, 1865)

     *Paromalina coronata (Parker & Jones, 1865)

Discorbinella bertheloti (d'Orbigny, 1839)

     *Discorbis bertheloti (d'Orbigny, 1839)

Elphidiella arctica (Parker & Jones, 1864)

Elphidiella groenlandica (Cushman, 1936)

Elphidium bartletti Cushman, 1933

Elphidium frigidum Cushman, 1933

Elphidium hallandense Brotzen, 1943

Elphidium williamsoni Haynes, 1973

Enantiodentalina obliqua (d'Orbigny, 1826)

     *Dentalina obliqua d'Orbigny, 1826

Evolvocassidulina bradyi (Norman, 1881)

     *Cassidulinoides bradyi (Norman, 1881)

Favulina hexagona (Williamson, 1848)

     *Lagena hexagona (Williamson, 1848)

Favulina hexagona (Williamson, 1848)

     *Oolina hexagona (Williamson, 1848)

Favulina melo (d'Orbigny, 1839)

     *Oolina melo d'Orbigny, 1839

Favulina squamosa (Montagu, 1803)

     *Lagena squamosa (Montagu, 1803)

Fissurina laevigata Reuss, 1850

     *Lagena laevigata (Reuss, 1850)

Fissurina marginata (Montagu, 1803)

     *Lagena marginata (Montagu, 1803)

Fissurina orbignyana Seguenza, 1862

     *Lagena orbignyana (Seguenza, 1862)

Gavelinopsis praegeri (Heron-Allen & Earland, 1913)

Glabratella arctica Scott & Vilks, 1991

Glandulina ovula d'Orbigny, 1846

     *Glandulina laevigata (d'Orbigny, 1839)

Globigerina bulloides d'Orbigny, 1826

Globobulimina auriculata subsp. arctica Hoeglund, 1947 

Globobulimina pyrula (d'Orbigny, 1846)

     *Bulimina pyrula d'Orbigny, 1846

Globocassidulina crassa (d'Orbigny, 1839)

     *Cassidulina crassa d'Orbigny, 1839

Haynesina orbiculare (Brady, 1881)

Haynesina orbiculare (Brady, 1881)

     *Protelphidium orbiculare (Bardy, 1881)

Homalohedra acuticosta (Reuss, 1862)

     *Lagena acuticosta Reuss, 1862

Hyalinea balthica (Schröter, 1783)

     *Anomalina balthica (Schröter, 1783)

Hyalinea balthica (Schröter, 1783)

Hyalinonetrion distomum (Parker & Jones, 1864)

     *Lagena distoma Parker & Jones, 1864

Hyalinonetrion gracillima (Seguenza, 1862)

     *Lagena gracillima (Seguenza, 1862)

Ioanella tumidula (Brady, 1884)

     *Eponides tumidulus (Brady, 1884)

Islandiella helenae Feyling-Hanssen & Buzas, 1976

Islandiella islandica (Nørvang, 1945)

     *Cassidulina islandica Nørvang, 1945

Islandiella islandica (Nørvang, 1945)

Islandiella norcrossi (Cushman, 1933)

     *Cassidulina norcrossi Cushman, 1933

Laevidentalina antarctica (Parr, 1950)

Laevidentalina baggi (Galloway & Wissler, 1927)

Laevidentalina communis (d'Orbigny, 1826)

     *Dentalina communis d'Orbigny, 1826

Laevidentalina communis (d'Orbigny, 1826)

Laevidentalina filiformis (d'Orbigny, 1826)

Lagena montagui Silvestri, 1902

Lagena perlucida (Montagu, 1803)

Lagena striata (d'Orbigny, 1839)

Laminononion tumidum (Cushman & Edwards, 1937)

     *Astrononion tumidum Cushman & Edwards, 1937

Laryngosigma lactea (Walker & Jacob, 1798)

     *Guttulina lactea (Walker & Jacob, 1798)

Lenticulina glabrata (Cushman, 1923)

     *Cristellaria occidentalis var. glabrata Cushman, 1923

Lobatula lobatula (Walker & Jacob, 1798)

     *Cibicides lobatulus (Walker & Jacob, 1798)

Loeblichopsis sabulosa (Brady, 1881)

Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg, 1861)

     *Globigerina pachyderma (Ehrenberg, 1861)

Nodosaria subannulata Cushman, 1923

     *Pseudonodosaria subannulata (Cushman, 1923)

Nonionoides turgida (Williamson, 1858)

      *Nonionella turgida (Williamson, 1858)

Oolina borealis Loeblich & Tappan, 1954

Oolina globosa (Montagu, 1803)

     *Lagena globosa (Montagu, 1803)

Oolina melo d'Orbigny, 1839

     *Lagena melo (Fichtel & Moll, 1798)

Oridorsalis tenerus (Brady, 1884)

     *Oridorsalis tener (Brady, 1884)

Oridorsalis umbonatus (Reuss, 1851)

Parafissurina fusuliformis Loeblich & Tappan, 1953

Patellina corrugata Williamson, 1858

Procerolagena clavata (d'Orbigny, 1846)

     *Lagena clavata (d'Orbigny, 1846)

Pseudonodosaria incerta (Neugeboren, 1856)

Pseudoparrella takayanagii (Iwasa, 1955)

     *Epistominella takayanagii Iwasa, 1955

Pseudopolymorphina novangliae (Cushman, 1923)

Pullenia bulloides (d'Orbigny, 1846)

     *Pullenia bulloides (d'Orbigny, 1846)

Pullenia bulloides (d'Orbigny, 1846)

     *Pullenia sphaeroides (d'Orbigny, 1826)

Pullenia osloensis Feyling-Hanssen, 1954

Pullenia quinqueloba (Reuss, 1851)

Pullenina subcarinata (d'Orbigny, 1839)

Reussoolina laevis (Montagu, 1803)

     *Lagena laevis (Montagu, 1803)

Robertina arctica d'Orbigny, 1846

Robertinoides charlottensis (Cushman, 1925)

Rosalina anomala Terquem, 1875

Rupertina stabilis (Wallich, 1877)

     *Rupertia stabilis Wallich, 1877

Stainforthia concava (Höglund, 1947)

Stainforthia concava (Höglund, 1947)

     *Virgulina concava Hoglund, 1947

Stainforthia fusiformis (Williamson, 1848)

Stetsonia arctica Green, 1960

Trifarina angulosa (Williamson, 1858)

     *Angulogerina angulosa (Williamson, 1858)

Trifarina angulosa (Williamson, 1858)

     *Trifarina angulosa (Williamson, 1858)

Trifarina fluens (Todd, 1948)

     *Trifarina fluens (Todd, 1948)

Uvigerina peregrina Cushman, 1923

     *Uvigerina peregrina Cushman, 1923

Vaginulina undata d'Orbigny, 1902

     *Vaginulina undata d'Orbigny, 1902

Vasicostella squamosoalata (Brady, 1881)

     *Lagena squamosoalata Brady, 1881

 

Heimildir

1. Murray, J., 2007. Biodiversity of living benthic foraminifera: How many species are there? Marine Micropaleontology, 64, p.163–176

2. Loeblich, A.R., Tappan, H., 1987. Foraminiferal Genera and Their Classification, vols. 1 and 2. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foraminifera (skoðað 27.1.2016)

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