The IINH is responsible for obtaining, keeping, and sharing information about nature in Iceland. The IINH fulfils this role through activities that include:
- Publishing written material and maps of scientific merit.
- Sharing information and educational material online.
- Providing library and information services of a high calibre.
The IINH also organizes educational outreach programmes. It is actively involved with schools and students of all grade levels, the general public, and the scientific community at large. It also provides scientific and scholarly support for the Icelandic Museum of Natural History. The IINH holds a public lecture series (Hrafnathing) during the winter months.