The primary role of the Icelandic Institute of Natural History (IINH) is to conduct basic research on the flora, fauna, and geology of Iceland. The IINH is responsible for organised research on nature in Iceland and maintains numerous natural history research databases. The IINH documents the species living in and around Iceland and maps their distribution. Monitoring and research projects extend to marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments.

The IINH publishes research reports and maps. GIS data and metadata can also be downloaded at no charge.